Tuesday, September 30, 2014

Updated Student News :

Sindh Education announced the Results of SECCAP 2014 for Pre-Medical, Pre-Engineering, Home Ecnomics and Computer Science. Click the following link to download the Results.

Click Here for All SECCAP Results

Sindh Education announced the Results of SECCAP 2014 for Commerce, Humanties, Pre-Medical, Pre-Engineering, Home Ecnomics and Computer Science. Click the following links to download the Results.

Commerce (Female) Result 2014
Commerce (Male) Result 2014
Humanities (Female) Result 2014
Humanities (Male) Result 2014
Pre-Medical (Male) Result 2014
Pre-Medical (Female) Result 2014
Pre-Engineering (Male) Result 2014
Pre-Engineering (Female) Result 2014
Home Economics Result 2014
Computer Science (Male) Result 2014
Computer Science (Female) Result 2014

CAP Admission Results 2014 - The Centralized Admission policy (CAP) has been changed to SECCAP Sindh E-Centralized College Admission Program. This new policy has been brought under the current government setup that Dr Ishrat-ul-Ibad as the governor of Sindh, Bilawal Bhutto as the patron-in-Chief, Syed Qaim Ali Shah as the Chief Minister of Sindh, Nisar Ahmed Khuhro as the Senior Minister fir Education and Literacy Department and Dr Fazlullah Pechuho as the secretary of education and literacy department.
Now under this admission policy candidates has to fill the form online & then print the form to submit. Candidate should download the brochure carefully and then select the desired colleges. Fill the form completely and carefully as after clicking the submit button, the candidate cannot revert back. Form will be submitted with 60 rupee challan and attach a photocopy of the admit card & mark sheet with the form and submit it to the nearest branch of Sindh Bank. The list of successful candidates will be published on the website of education and literacy department sindheducation.gov.pk
The system of centralized Admission Policy (CAP) was introduced in the year 2000 by the Education Department, Government of Sindh for the admissions in class XI in the colleges and higher secondary schools of Karachi. The objective of the policy is to make more efficient the procedure of admissions and root out every sort of indiscretion as well as to offer equal prospect to the students for taking admission in the colleges of their selection on the root of marks merit. The Cap system is the very reliable and easy to take admission in the colleges and running successfully since it started. Find CAP Result 2012-2013 (Regular and private) of Pre Medical, Pre Engineering, Commerce, Humanities, economics and computer science of Male & Female Candidates & Aptitude Test Results at pakistanstudynotes.blogspot.com

Faisalabad Board FA FSc Part 1 Result 2014

Faisalabad, Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education Faisalabad has already managed the FA/FSc part 1 annual exams during May. The students of Faisalabad Board 11th class are waiting anxiously for their result of the Inter part 1 annual exams. Faisalabad Board will announce the annual exams result of 1st year on 10 Oct in the main hall of BISE Faisalabad in the presence of teachers, board officials and students. The annual exams result of HSSC Part 1 will be uploaded on the website www.result.pk with the complete information and for the convenience of the students.

DG Khan Board FA FSc Part 1 Result 2014

DG Khan, Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education DG Khan will declare FA/FSc part 1 result for annual exams 2014 on 10 Oct. DG Khan Board conducted the annual exams of HSSC Part 1 in the colleges and the higher secondary schools come under its jurisdiction. BISE DG Khan will provide the complete information regarding annual exams result of Intermediate part 1 2014 and the students will get the latest updates of the annual exams result of Inter part 1 on the website www.result.pk. The students of 11th class are asked to check their annual exams result of 1st year, which will be uploaded on this site soon after the first year annual exams result for 2014.

Bahawalpur Board FA FSc Part 1 Result 2014

Bahawalpur, Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education Bahawalpur and all other educational boards of Punjab will declare the result of FA/FSc Part 1 annual exams for 2014 on 10 Oct. BISE Bahawalpur will complete preparation of HSSC Part 1 annual exams result. Bahawalpur Board will also declare names of the position holder students of 11th class. The students of 1st of BISE Bahawalpur are advised to visit the website www.result.pk to get the Inter part 1 annual exams result. As soon as BISE Bahawalpur Board will declare the annual exams result of Intermediate part 1, it will be uploaded on the site for the information of the students.

Sahiwal Board FA FSc Part 1 Result 2014

Sahiwal, Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education Sahiwal has decided to declare the annual exams result regarding FA/FSc Part 1 for the year 2014 on 10 Oct. Sahiwal Board will give this good news to the students after eid festival in the main auditorium of BISE Sahiwal. BISE Sahiwal Board will declare the annual exams result of 11th class in the presence of teachers, students and board officials. The students of 1st year will visit the website www.result.pk to get the latest and fresh updates of the annual exams result of Intermediate part 1 for the year 2014.

Sargodha Board FA FSc Part 1 Result 2014

Sargodha, BISE Sargodha will declare FA/FSc Part 1 annual exams result for year 2014 on 10 October 2014. Punjab Board Committee of Chairmen issued directives to all educational boards across Punjab that they announce HSSC Part 1 for 2014 at the same time. Now the Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education Sargodha is preparing result of 11th class, which will be declared on the fixed date. BISE Sargodha Board will declare annual exams result of first year with complete information of the annual exams of Intermediate part 1 for year 2014. As soon as Sargodha Board will announce annual exams result of Intermediate part 1, it will be uploaded on the website www.result.pk for the convenience of the students.

NTS NAT Test 2014 Result of IUB

NTS has issued the result of Islamia University of Bahawalpur NAT special test 2014. This NAT National Aptitude Test for admissions in Islamia University Bahawalpur various programs was take on 21st September 2014 now on 30 September 2014 NTS has issued the  result of NAT test. Students can check online NTS NAT test result 2014 online on below given link:

Saturday, September 27, 2014

Result’s out!

  • Boys bag top two positions but girls secure higher pass percentage in HSSC Annual Exams 2014
  • Total pass percentage remains 47.87 pc
Rawalpindi Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education (RBISE) Friday announced the result of Higher Secondary School Certificate (HSSC) FA/FSc Annual Examination 2014.
As many as 60,308 candidates appeared in the exam out of whom 28,355 were declared successful, with total percentage of 47.87 percentage.
Of the total number of students who took the exams, 26,284 were male while 34,024 were female candidates.
Pass percentage of male students remained 42.82 while 51.7 was the pass percentage of female students.
In FA/FSc exams, out of overall three top positions, two male students from Punjab College of Information Technology, Rawalpindi got first and second positions with 1,024 and 1,014 marks while a female student from Punjab College for Girls, Chakwal bagged the third position with 1,010 marks.
Muhammad Nashit Khurshid son of Khurshid Ahmed, Roll no 746623 of Pre-medical Group bagged the first position with 1,024 marks.
Talha Shakeel son of Qazi Shakeelur Rehman, Roll no 746956 of Pre-Medical Group stood second with 1,014 marks while Rida Nawaz daughter of Rab Nawaz, Roll No 710400 of Pre-Medical Group got third position with 1,010 marks.
Out of the boys in the humanities group, Muhammad Farhan Saeed son of Saeed Ahmed, Roll no 715316 and student of Government Postgraduate College, Chakwal got first position with 881 marks. Usama Noor son of Mulazim Hussain, Roll no 713673, student of Government Higher Secondary School Padshahan (Chakwal) stood second with 872 marks while Muhammad Hasnain Mehmood son of Mehmood Ayaz, Roll No 756004, student of Professor Muhammad Shamim Government College of Commerce Kahuta District Rawalpindi bagged third position with 854 marks.
Out of the girls in the humanities group, Toheed Bibi daughter of Azmat Ali, Roll No 701487, Government Girls Higher Secondary School Shadi Khan, Attock got first position with 904 marks. Aamna Firdous daughter of Muhammad Zubair, Roll No 719243, Government College for Women, Jhelum stood second with 900 marks while Noshaba Mushtaq daughter of Mushtaq Ahmed, Roll no 747054, Government Viqarun Nisa Post Graduate College for Women, Rawalpindi got third position.
The candidates can check their result on the board’s website www.biserwp.edu.pk.
Total enrolled students for HSSC exams (private candidates) were 26,359 while 25,273 candidates appeared in the examinations. 7,620 remained successful and 17,064 were declared unsuccessful. Pass percentage of private students remained 30.17.
Out of the total number of students, 755 got A-1 grade, 2,335 got A grade, 6,389 students were declared successful in B grade while 11,182 students were awarded C grade.
Total 30,161 students remained unsuccessful while 1,017 failed to appear in the examinations.

Entrepreneurship: Characteristics,Importance, Types, and Functions of Entrepreneurship

Entrepreneurial development today has become very significant; in view of its being a key to economic development. The objectives of industrial development, regional growth, and employment generation depend upon entrepreneurial development.

Entrepreneurs are, thus, the seeds of industrial development and the fruits of industrial development are greater employment opportunities to unemployed youth, increase in per capita income, higher standard of living and increased individual saving, revenue to the government in the form of income tax, sales tax, export duties, import duties, and balanced regional development.
Concept of Entrepreneurship:
The word “entrepreneur” is derived from the French verb enterprendre, which means ‘to undertake’. This refers to those who “undertake” the risk of new enterprises. An enterprise is created by an entrepreneur. The process of creation is called “entrepreneurship”.
Entrepreneurship is a process of actions of an entrepreneur who is a person always in search of something new and exploits such ideas into gainful opportunities by accepting the risk and uncertainty with the enterprise.

Characteristics of Entrepreneurship:

Entrepreneurship is characterized by the following features:

1. Economic and dynamic activity:

Entrepreneurship is an economic activity because it involves the creation and operation of an enterprise with a view to creating value or wealth by ensuring optimum utilisation of scarce resources. Since this value creation activity is performed continuously in the midst of uncertain business environment, therefore, entrepreneurship is regarded as a dynamic force.

2. Related to innovation:

Entrepreneurship involves a continuous search for new ideas. Entrepreneurship compels an individual to continuously evaluate the existing modes of business operations so that more efficient and effective systems can be evolved and adopted. In other words, entrepreneurship is a continuous effort for synergy (optimization of performance) in organizations.

3. Profit potential:

“Profit potential is the likely level of return or compensation to the entrepreneur for taking on the risk of developing an idea into an actual business venture.” Without profit potential, the efforts of entrepreneurs would remain only an abstract and a theoretical leisure activity.

4. Risk bearing:

The essence of entrepreneurship is the ‘willingness to assume risk’ arising out of the creation and implementation of new ideas. New ideas are always tentative and their results may not be instantaneous and positive.
An entrepreneur has to have patience to see his efforts bear fruit. In the intervening period (time gap between the conception and implementation of an idea and its results), an entrepreneur has to assume risk. If an entrepreneur does not have the willingness to assume risk, entrepreneurship would never succeed.

Entrepreneurial Process:

Entrepreneurship is a process, a journey, not the destination; a means, not an end. All the successful entrepreneurs like Bill Gates (Microsoft), Warren Buffet (Hathaway), Gordon Moore (Intel) Steve Jobs (Apple Computers), Jack Welch (GE) GD Birla, Jamshedji Tata and others all went through this process.
To establish and run an enterprise it is divided into three parts – the entrepreneurial job, the promotion, and the operation. Entrepreneurial job is restricted to two steps, i.e., generation of an idea and preparation of feasibility report. In this article, we shall restrict ourselves to only these two aspects of entrepreneurial process.
Figure 4.1: The Entrepreneurial Process

1. Idea Generation:

To generate an idea, the entrepreneurial process has to pass through three stages:
a. Germination:
This is like seeding process, not like planting seed. It is more like the natural seeding. Most creative ideas can be linked to an individual’s interest or curiosity about a specific problem or area of study.
b. Preparation:
Once the seed of interest curiosity has taken the shape of a focused idea, creative people start a search for answers to the problems. Inventors will go on for setting up laboratories; designers will think of engineering new product ideas and marketers will study consumer buying habits.
c. Incubation:
This is a stage where the entrepreneurial process enters the sub­conscious intellectualization. The sub-conscious mind joins the unrelated ideas so as to find a resolution.

2. Feasibility study:

Feasibility study is done to see if the idea can be commercially viable.
It passes through two steps:
a. Illumination:
After the generation of idea, this is the stage when the idea is thought of as a realistic creation. The stage of idea blossoming is critical because ideas by themselves have no meaning.
b. Verification:
This is the last thing to verify the idea as realistic and useful for application. Verification is concerned about practicality to implement an idea and explore its usefulness to the society and the entrepreneur.

Importance of Entrepreneurship:

Entrepreneurship offers the following benefits:
Benefits of Entrepreneurship to an Organisation:

1. Development of managerial capabilities:

The biggest significance of entrepreneurship lies in the fact that it helps in identifying and developing managerial capabilities of entrepreneurs. An entrepreneur studies a problem, identifies its alternatives, compares the alternatives in terms of cost and benefits implications, and finally chooses the best alternative.
This exercise helps in sharpening the decision making skills of an entrepreneur. Besides, these managerial capabilities are used by entrepreneurs in creating new technologies and products in place of older technologies and products resulting in higher performance.

2. Creation of organisations:

Entrepreneurship results into creation of organisations when entrepreneurs assemble and coordinate physical, human and financial resources and direct them towards achievement of objectives through managerial skills.

3. Improving standards of living:

By creating productive organisations, entrepreneurship helps in making a wide variety of goods and services available to the society which results into higher standards of living for the people.
Possession of luxury cars, computers, mobile phones, rapid growth of shopping malls, etc. are pointers to the rising living standards of people, and all this is due to the efforts of entrepreneurs.

4. Means of economic development:

Entrepreneurship involves creation and use of innovative ideas, maximisation of output from given resources, development of managerial skills, etc., and all these factors are so essential for the economic development of a country.

Factors affecting Entrepreneurship:

Entrepreneurship is a complex phenomenon influenced by the interplay of a wide variety of factors.
Some of the important factors are listed below:

1. Personality Factors:

Personal factors, becoming core competencies of entrepreneurs, include:
(a) Initiative (does things before being asked for)
(b) Proactive (identification and utilisation of opportunities)
(c) Perseverance (working against all odds to overcome obstacles and never complacent with success)
(d) Problem-solver (conceives new ideas and achieves innovative solutions)
(e) Persuasion (to customers and financiers for patronisation of his business and develops & maintains relationships)
(f) Self-confidence (takes and sticks to his decisions)
(g) Self-critical (learning from his mistakes and experiences of others)
(h) A Planner (collects information, prepares a plan, and monitors performance)
(i) Risk-taker (the basic quality).

2. Environmental factors:

These factors relate to the conditions in which an entrepreneur has to work. Environmental factors such as political climate, legal system, economic and social conditions, market situations, etc. contribute significantly towards the growth of entrepreneurship. For example, political stability in a country is absolutely essential for smooth economic activity.
Frequent political protests, bandhs, strikes, etc. hinder economic activity and entrepreneurship. Unfair trade practices, irrational monetary and fiscal policies, etc. are a roadblock to the growth of entrepreneurship. Higher income levels of people, desire for new products and sophisticated technology, need for faster means of transport and communication, etc. are the factors that stimulate entrepreneurship.
Thus, it is a combination of both personal and environmental factors that influence entrepreneurship and brings in desired results for the individual, the organisation and the society.

Types of Entrepreneurs:

Depending upon the level of willingness to create innovative ideas, there can be the following types of entrepreneurs:

1. Innovative entrepreneurs:

These entrepreneurs have the ability to think newer, better and more economical ideas of business organisation and management. They are the business leaders and contributors to the economic development of a country.
Inventions like the introduction of a small car ‘Nano’ by Ratan Tata, organised retailing by Kishore Biyani, making mobile phones available to the common may by Anil Ambani are the works of innovative entrepreneurs.

2. Imitating entrepreneurs:

These entrepreneurs are people who follow the path shown by innovative entrepreneurs. They imitate innovative entrepreneurs because the environment in which they operate is such that it does not permit them to have creative and innovative ideas on their own.
Such entrepreneurs are found in countries and situations marked with weak industrial and institutional base which creates difficulties in initiating innovative ideas.
In our country also, a large number of such entrepreneurs are found in every field of business activity and they fulfill their need for achievement by imitating the ideas introduced by innovative entrepreneurs.
Development of small shopping complexes is the work of imitating entrepreneurs. All the small car manufacturers now are the imitating entrepreneurs.

3. Fabian entrepreneurs:

The dictionary meaning of the term ‘fabian’ is ‘a person seeking victory by delay rather than by a decisive battle’. Fabian entrepreneurs are those individuals who do not show initiative in visualising and implementing new ideas and innovations wait for some development which would motivate them to initiate unless there is an imminent threat to their very existence.

4. Drone entrepreneurs:

The dictionary meaning of the term ‘drone’ is ‘a person who lives on the labor of others’. Drone entrepreneurs are those individuals who are satisfied with the existing mode and speed of business activity and show no inclination in gaining market leadership. In other words, drone entrepreneurs are die-hard conservatives and even ready to suffer the loss of business.

5. Social Entrepreneur:

Social entrepreneurs drive social innovation and transformation in various fields including education, health, human rights, workers’ rights, environment and enterprise development.
They undertake poverty alleviation objectives with the zeal of an entrepreneur, business practices and dare to overcome traditional practices and to innovate. Dr Mohammed Yunus of Bangladesh who started Gramin Bank is a case of social entrepreneur.

Functions of an Entrepreneur:

The important functions performed by an entrepreneur are listed below:

1. Innovation:

An entrepreneur is basically an innovator who tries to develop new technology, products, markets, etc. Innovation may involve doing new things or doing existing things differently. An entrepreneur uses his creative faculties to do new things and exploit opportunities in the market. He does not believe in status quo and is always in search of change.

2. Assumption of Risk:

An entrepreneur, by definition, is risk taker and not risk shirker. He is always prepared for assuming losses that may arise on account of new ideas and projects undertaken by him. This willingness to take risks allows an entrepreneur to take initiatives in doing new things and marching ahead in his efforts.

3. Research:

An entrepreneur is a practical dreamer and does a lot of ground-work before taking a leap in his ventures. In other words, an entrepreneur finalizes an idea only after considering a variety of options, analyzing their strengths and weaknesses by applying analytical techniques, testing their applicability, supplementing them with empirical findings, and then choosing the best alternative. It is then that he applies his ideas in practice. The selection of an idea, thus, involves the application of research methodology by an entrepreneur.

4. Development of Management Skills:

The work of an entrepreneur involves the use of managerial skills which he develops while planning, organizing, staffing, directing, controlling and coordinating the activities of business. His managerial skills get further strengthened when he engages himself in establishing equilibrium between his organization and its environment.
However, when the size of business grows considerably, an entrepreneur can employ professional managers for the effective management of business operations.

5. Overcoming Resistance to Change:

New innovations are generally opposed by people because it makes them change their existing behavior patterns. An entrepreneur always first tries new ideas at his level.
It is only after the successful implementation of these ideas that an entrepreneur makes these ideas available to others for their benefit. In this manner, an entrepreneur paves the way for the acceptance of his ideas by others. This is a reflection of his will power, enthusiasm and energy which helps him in overcoming the society’s resistance to change.

6. Catalyst of Economic Development:

An entrepreneur plays an important role in accelerating the pace of economic development of a country by discovering new uses of available resources and maximizing their utilization.
To better appreciate the concept of an entrepreneur, it is desirable to distinguish him from an entrepreneur and promoter. Table 4.1 outlines the distinction between an entrepreneur and entrepreneurs, and Table 4.2 portrays basic points of distinction between an entrepreneur and promoter.
Table 4.1: Distinction between Entrepreneur and Intrapreneur:
Basis Entrepreneur Intrapreneur
• Capacity• Status• Decisions • Reward — Owner— Own boss— Takes own decisions — Uncertain and unlimited — An manager— Salaried employee— Executes decisions with the concurrence of owner — Fixed rewards and salary
Table 4.2: Distinction between Entrepreneur and Promoter:
Basis Entrepreneur Promoter
• Stage of business• Owning business• Nature of job • Example — From conception to continuation— Owns the enterprise— Includes everything — Any business — To bring a business into existence— May or may not own— Highly specialised — A consultant or a chartered account and offering services

Some Myths about Entrepreneurship:

Over the years, a few myths about entrepreneurship have developed. These are as under:

(i) Entrepreneurs, like leaders, are born, not made:

The fact does not hold true for the simple reason that entrepreneurship is a discipline comprising of models, processes and case studies.
One can learn about entrepreneurship by studying the discipline.

(ii) Entrepreneurs are academic and socially misfits:

Dhirubai Ambani had no formal education. Bill Gates has been a School drop-out. Therefore, this description does not apply to everyone. Education makes an entrepreneur a true entrepreneur. Mr Anand Mahindra, Mr Kumar Mangalam Birla, for example, is educated entrepreneurs and that is why they are heroes.

(iii) To be an entrepreneur, one needs money only:

Finance is the life-blood of an enterprise to survive and grow. But for a good idea whose time has come, money is not a problem.

(iv) To be an entrepreneur, a great idea is the only ingredient:

A good or great idea shall remain an idea unless there is proper combination of all the resources including management.

(v) One wants to be an entrepreneur as having no boss is great fun:

It is not only the boss who is demanding; even an entrepreneur faces demanding vendors, investors, bankers and above all customers.
An entrepreneur’s life will be much simpler, since he works for himself. The truth is working for others are simpler than working for oneself. One thinks 24 hours a day to make his venture successful and thus, there would be a punishing schedule.

10 Most Important Business Objectives

Your business objectives are the results you hope to achieve and maintain as you run and grow your business. As an entrepreneur, you are concerned with every aspect of your business and need to have clear goals in mind for your company. Having a comprehensive list of business objectives creates the guidelines that become the foundation for your business planning.


Maintaining profitability means making sure that revenue stays ahead of the costs of doing business, according to James Stephenson, writing for the "Entrepreneur" website. Focus on controlling costs in both production and operations while maintaining the profit margin on products sold.


Employee training, equipment maintenance and new equipment purchases all go into company productivity. Your objective should be to provide all of the resources your employees need to remain as productive as possible.

Customer Service

Good customer service helps you retain clients and generate repeat revenue. Keeping your customers happy should be a primary objective of your organization.

Employee Retention

Employee turnover costs you money in lost productivity and the costs associated with recruiting, which include employment advertising and paying placement agencies. Maintaining a productive and positive employee environment improves retention, according to the Dun and Bradstreet website.

Core Values

Your company mission statement is a description of the core values of your company, according to the Dun and Bradstreet website. It is a summary of the beliefs your company holds in regard to customer interaction, responsibility to the community and employee satisfaction. The company's core values become the objectives necessary to create a positive corporate culture.


Growth is planned based on historical data and future projections. Growth requires the careful use of company resources such as finances and personnel, according to Tim Berry, writing on the "Entrepreneur" website.

Maintain Financing

Even a company with good cash flow needs financing contacts in the event that capital is needed to expand the organization, according to Tim Berry, writing on the "Entrepreneur" website. Maintaining your ability to finance operations means that you can prepare for long-term projects and address short-term needs such as payroll and accounts payable.

Change Management

Change management is the process of preparing your organization for growth and creating processes that effectively deal with a developing marketplace. The objective of change management is to create a dynamic organization that is prepared to meet the challenges of your industry.


Marketing is more than creating advertising and getting customer input on product changes. It is understanding consumer buying trends, being able to anticipate product distribution needs and developing business partnerships that help your organization to improve market share.

Competitive Analysis

A comprehensive analysis of the activities of the competition should be an ongoing business objective for your organization. Understanding where your products rank in the marketplace helps you to better determine how to improve your standing among consumers and improve your revenue

Friday, September 26, 2014

Eid-ul-Azha brings good business to blacksmiths


 ISLAMABAD: For the blacksmiths in the adjoining city of Rawalpindi the period ahead of Eid-u-Azha is a time of lucrative earnings as sale of their hand-made knives and choppers has soared while there is also a rush for sharpening the old ones.
Purana Qila (old fort), a centuries old area with cluster of narrow lanes and old buildings, is the hub of the artisans.
A hustle and bustle is witnessed these days in the area with customers preparing their tools for performing `Qurbani' - the religious obligation and Sunnah of the Holy Prophet Hazrat Ibrahim (AS) on the eve of Eid-ul-Azha.
"Finding a butcher on first two days of Eid is a very difficult task so people give preference to sacrifice animals themselves to follow the Sunnah and avoid inconvenience. People buy the required tools, while many get their old knives and choppers sharpened," said blacksmith Muhammad Bashir.
Bashir spoke about the business to this agency as he sat in front of his small shop, busy in sharpening a 'kamani chopper' made of solid iron for Rs. 130.
"These are the exceptional days for us as we do sufficient business, much more than the other times throughout the year," Bashir said.
Sharing his experience, he said mostly people buy a set consisting of one big knife to slaughter animal, one small to take off skin and a chopper to cut the meat into pieces, costing Rs. 700 to 1500, depending on quality.
Other hot selling items on these shops are "angeethi" (hand made oven) and steel bars to make barbecue of the sacrificial meat.
Eid- ul- Azha also provides opportunity of good business to vendors who roam around on bicycles to sell a variety of knives and other related articles, which are displayed on a board. Their rates are less than the Purana Qila blacksmiths operating in regular shops.

BISE Faisalabad board intermediate part 2 result is declared

BISE Faisalabad Board 9th class Result 2014
BISE Faisalabad board intermediate part 2 result is declared. Candidates will be able to check their result online on the official website of BISE Faisalabad.
Click here to go on the official website.
The Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education (BISE Faisalabad Board) is the fundamental instructing leading body of Faisalabad for the association of matric and middle of the road exams ever year. For the year 2014 the last test of the years of Matric were composed in March and finished in April. In one month from now i.e. Might the board directed the middle of the road exams. Presently the exams of matric and middle have been finished and papers have been sent to class and school instructors. When this procedure will be finished the consequence of both levels will be pronounced. Matric come about 2014 will be pronounced in August/September while the aftereffect of halfway exams will be accessible in September/October. All the result anticipating hopefuls must stay in contact with ilmkidunya to download the BISE Faisalabad Board Result 2014. Assuredly soon the board will distribute the result and understudies could get all the subtle elements right here.
The supervisory body was started to exist in 1988 and composed its first session exams in 1989 for matric and bury understudies. Prior to its initiation the board was a piece of Sargodha Board yet later on with the expanded populace and interest Faisalabad Board started to exist. Faisalabad Board has the power to arrange yearly and supplementary exams for the areas that are under its ward and these are Faisalabad, Jhang, Toba Tek Singh, Chiniot.
Its conducts the Matric ninth and tenth class exams and Intermediate section 1 and section 1 exams consistently and a huge number of thousands understudies show up in these exams every year and takes three months in result report. Presently the arrangements of BISE Faisalabad Board Result 2014 are on last stage. When we will get any redesign of matric and bury result it will be posted right here. Stay in contact with ilmkidunya to get further points of interest instantly.
- See more at: http://www.ilmkidunya.com/results/bise_faisalabad_result.aspx#sthash.e6lxlee1.dpuf

Punjab University B.Com part 1 result declared by PU Lahore

Police conduct raid at Punjab University hostels, arrest 15 illegal occupants
The Punjab University B.com Part 1 Result just got declared by Punjab University Lahore. It may be mentioned than the result of Intermediate part 2 was also released few days ago.
Punjab University B.com section 1 result announced by PU Lahore. School of the Punjab was implicit 1882 and known as a higher learning seat of worth preparing. The school has diverse ventures for the ordinary and private understudies. General understudies get guideline at PU offices while the private understudies can similarly enroll themselves for the last, most definitive tests of graduate and postgraduate level.
For the current year the last, most conclusive tests of B.com were dealt with in the month of June and eventual outcome of both parts will be declared autonomously. Punjab University B.com Result 2014 is ordinary in the month of September or October. All the redesigns will be given to understudies at this page.
College of the Punjab is going to affirm Punjab University PU B.com Part 1 yearly come about exam 2014. We should transfer the Punjab University PU B.com Part 1 yearly exam come about 2014 on this page when the college examination office will formally affirm the result without squandering at whatever time. Punjab University strictly tail its scholarly calender, so we can trust that Punjab University PU B.com Part 1 yearly come about 2014 will additionally be proclaimed in time.

Corporate result: PIA losses drop 44% in first half of 2014

The Rs5.23 billion exchange gain, which came because of a stronger rupee against the dollar, offset a sharp 88% decline in other income. PHOTO: STOCK IMAGE 

KARACHI:  Financial loss of Pakistan International Airlines (PIA) came down 44.89% to Rs10.131 billion in six months to June 2014 over the same period of previous year as the airline booked exchange gains, higher revenues and a reduction in administrative expenses.
Helped by a rise of 11% in revenues to Rs53.34 billion, the national carrier posted a gross profit of Rs338 million for January-June 2014, reflecting an improvement in its flight operation, according to the airline’s financial statements.
The Rs5.23 billion exchange gain, which came because of a stronger rupee against the dollar, offset a sharp 88% decline in other income. In the first half of 2013, the airline had recorded an exchange loss of Rs1.46 billion.
Cost-controlling measures helped PIA reduce administrative expenses by 6.7% to Rs4.34 billion against last year’s Rs4.65 billion.
Heavy debt of Rs279 billion continues to take its toll on the cash-strapped airline as it has to bear the burden of ever increasing interest payments. This was reflected in the 21.7% rise in finance cost to Rs7.33 billion.
The second April-June quarter would have been even better had the airline not suffered an exchange loss of Rs370 million. Other income when compared with the previous year also saw a steep decline of 90%.
However, PIA was still able to record a gross profit of Rs441 million.
The government has been drip-feeding the airline by helping it arrange loans to pay salaries and vendors as its balance sheet, which carries a negative equity, does not encourage lenders.
The government has decided to sell PIA after its restructuring. The air carrier has been pushing the government for months to release funds for leasing narrow-body fuel-efficient planes.
It has a fleet of 30 active aircraft, but many of these are often grounded for want of repairs.

Karachi Inter Commerce Part 1 & 2 Result 2014

Karachi Inter Commerce Part 1 & 2 Result 2014
Karachi Inter Commerce Part 1 & 2 Result 2014 search now. This board will organize, manage and develop secondary education. They conduct examinations and declare results. They are trying to make an examination in fair conditions. Karachi Board was given full authority to control its examination and results of observation to give the best service to students who are enrolled in BSEK Karachi. That is the reason thousands of students are enrolled each year for Matric exams. This board continues to work hard to provide quality education of Sindh. Same as Board of Intermediate Education Karachi (BIEK) works for inter exams since 1974
Karachi Inter Commerce Part 1 & 2 Result 2014 here. Karachi Board hundreds of thousands students around Karachi will appear in the matric and intermediate exams and BSEK/BIEK Karachi Board Result 2014 will declare after three or four months. Mostly Exams of Matric and intermediate held in March to April, and its results came after few months. Students can check the results by visiting the appropriate page of ilmkidunya.com and all the latest news.

Rawalpindi Board 11th Class Result 2014

Rawalpindi Board 11th Class Result 2014
Rawalpindi Board 11th Class Result 2014 search now. Rawalpindi: Board of intermediate and secondary education announces the annual First year Result 11th Class 2014 in this month. BISE Rawalpindi  board announces the result of part 1 in the month of August or September. Now qualified teachers are marking the papers and as soon as this process will be completed and board will receive the papers BISE Rawalpindi Board Inter Part 1 Result 2014 announced.
Rawalpindi Board 11th Class Result 2014 here. Rawalpindi Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education BISE Rawalpindi was formulated in 1977 and considered as one of important board among Punjab boards. Since then every year it is holding the matric and inter exams. At government level the rules and regulations are made for all the boards and they are bound to follow the policies. The major purpose of BISE Rawalpindi Board is to organize all the exams in a fair and transparent way and manage the examinations and provide all the related material and facilities to students. Ministry of Education control all the matters and activities of the board. At this time BISE Rawalpindi is organizing exams for Attock, Chakwal, Rawalpindi and Jhelum districts.

BISE Upcoming Result Date 2014 pk Board

BISE Upcoming Result Date 2014 pk Board BISE Upcoming SSC Part 1 and 2 Result Date  PK Board (9th and 10th) BISE Upcoming 2014 Matric Annual 2014 Result PK BISE Board Higher Secondary School Certificate (HSSC) BISE Upcoming 11th Results 2014, BISE Board Higher Secondary School Certificate  (HSSC) 12th Results 2014, BISE Upcoming Secondary School Certificate (SSC) 9th Results Date  2014, Secondary School Certificate (SSC) 10th Results 2014, BISE BISE Upcoming Inter supplementary Examination Results 2014, BISE Lahore SSC supplementary Examination Results 2014

Thursday, September 25, 2014

Non-Verbal Communication

What is non-verbal communication? 
    Definition (CBC): “nonverbal communication involves those nonverbal stimuli in a communication setting that are generated by both the source [speaker] and his or her use of the environment and that have potential message value for the source or receiver [listener]  (Samovar et al).   Basically it is sending and receiving messages in a variety of ways without the use of verbal codes (words).  It is both intentional and unintentional.  Most speakers / listeners are not conscious of this.   It includes — but is not limited to:
    • touch
    • glance
    • eye contact (gaze)
    • volume
    • vocal nuance
    • proximity
    • gestures
    • facial expression ? pause (silence)
    • intonation
    • dress
    • posture
    • smell
    • word choice and syntax
    • sounds (paralanguage)

    Broadly speaking, there are two basic categories of non-verbal language:
            nonverbal messages produced by the body;
            nonverbal messages produced by the broad setting (time, space, silence)

Why is non-verbal communication important?
    Basically, it is one of the key aspects of communication (and especially important in a high-context culture).  It has multiple functions:
    • Used to repeat the verbal message (e.g. point in a direction while stating directions.
    • Often used to accent a verbal message. (e.g. verbal tone indicates the actual meaning of the specific words).
    • Often complement the verbal message but also may contradict.  E.g.: a nod reinforces a positive message (among Americans); a “wink” may contradict a stated positive message.
    • Regulate interactions (non-verbal cues covey when the other person should speak or not speak).
    • May substitute for the verbal message (especially if it is blocked by noise, interruption, etc) — i.e. gestures (finger to lips to indicate need for quiet), facial expressions (i.e. a nod instead of a yes).

    Note the implications of the proverb: “Actions speak louder than words.”  In essence, this underscores the importance of non-verbal communication.  Non-verbal communication is especially significant in intercultural situations. Probably non-verbal differences account for typical difficulties in communicating.

Cultural Differences in Non-verbal Communication
  1. General Appearance and Dress
  2. All cultures are concerned for how they look and make judgements based on looks and dress.  Americans, for instance, appear almost obsessed with dress and personal attractiveness.  Consider differing cultural standards on what is attractive in dress and on what constitutes modesty. Note ways dress is used as a sign of status?
  1. Body Movement
  2. We send information on attitude toward person (facing or leaning towards another), emotional statue (tapping fingers, jiggling coins), and desire to control the environment (moving towards or away from a person).
    More than 700,000 possible motions we can make — so impossible to categorize them all!  But just need to be aware the body movement and position is a key ingredient in sending messages.
  3. Posture
  4. Consider the following actions and note cultural differences:
    • Bowing (not done, criticized, or affected in US; shows rank in Japan)
    • Slouching (rude in most Northern European areas)
    • Hands in pocket (disrespectful in Turkey)
    • Sitting with legs crossed (offensive in Ghana, Turkey)
    • Showing soles of feet. (Offensive in Thailand, Saudi Arabia)
    • Even in US, there is a gender difference on acceptable posture?

  5. Gestures
  6. Impossible to catalog them all.  But need to recognize: 1) incredible possibility and variety and 2) that an acceptable in one’s own culture may be offensive in another.  In addition, amount of gesturing varies from culture to culture.  Some cultures are animated; other restrained.  Restrained cultures often feel animated cultures lack manners and overall restraint.  Animated cultures often feel restrained cultures lack emotion or interest.
    Even simple things like using hands to point and count differ.
    Pointing : US with index finger; Germany with little finger; Japanese with entire hand (in fact most Asians consider pointing with index finger to be rude)
    Counting:  Thumb = 1 in Germany, 5 in Japan, middle finger for 1 in Indonesia.
  7. Facial Expressions
  8. While some say that facial expressions are identical, meaning attached to them differs.  Majority opinion is that these do have similar meanings world-wide with respect to smiling, crying, or showing anger, sorrow, or disgust.  However, the intensity varies from culture to culture.  Note the following:
    • Many Asian cultures suppress facial expression as much as possible.
    • Many Mediterranean (Latino / Arabic) cultures exaggerate grief or sadness while most American men hide grief or sorrow.
    • Some see “animated” expressions as a sign of a lack of control.
    • Too much smiling is viewed in as a sign of shallowness.
    • Women smile more than men.

  9. Eye Contact and Gaze
  10. In USA, eye contact indicates: degree of attention or interest, influences attitude change or persuasion, regulates interaction, communicates emotion, defines power and status, and has a central role in managing impressions of others.
    • Western cultures — see direct eye to eye contact as positive (advise children to look a person in the eyes).  But within USA, African-Americans use more eye contact when talking and less when listening with reverse true for Anglo Americans.  This is a possible cause for some sense of unease between races in US.  A prolonged gaze is often seen as a sign of sexual interest.
    • Arabic cultures make prolonged eye-contact. — believe it shows interest and helps them understand truthfulness of the other person.  (A person who doesn’t reciprocate is seen as untrustworthy)
    • Japan, Africa, Latin American, Caribbean — avoid eye contact to show respect.

  11. Touch
  12. Question: Why do we touch, where do we touch, and what meanings do we assign when someone else touches us?
      Illustration: An African-American male goes into a convenience store recently taken over by new Korean immigrants.  He gives a $20 bill for his purchase to Mrs Cho who is cashier and waits for his change.  He is upset when his change is put down on the counter in front of him.What is the problem?  Traditional Korean (and many other Asian countries) don’t touch strangers., especially between members of the opposite sex.   But the African-American sees this as another example of discrimination (not touching him because he is black).
    Basic answer:  Touch is culturally determined!  But each culture has a clear concept of what parts of the body one may not touch.  Basic message of touch is to affect or control  — protect, support, disapprove (i.e. hug, kiss, hit, kick).  
    • USA — handshake is common (even for strangers), hugs, kisses for those of opposite gender or of family (usually) on an increasingly  more intimate basis. Note differences between African-Americans and Anglos in USA.  Most African Americans touch on greeting but are annoyed if touched on the head (good boy, good girl overtones).
    • Islamic and Hindu:  typically don’t touch with the left hand.  To do so is a social insult.  Left hand is for toilet functions.  Mannerly in India to break your bread only with your right hand (sometimes difficult for non-Indians)
    •  Islamic cultures generally don’t approve of any touching between genders (even hand shakes).  But consider such touching (including hand holding, hugs) between same-sex to be appropriate.
    • Many Asians don’t touch the head (Head houses the soul and a touch puts it in jeopardy).
    Basic patterns: Cultures (English , German, Scandinavian, Chinese, Japanese) with high emotional restraint concepts have little public touch; those which encourage emotion (Latino, Middle-East, Jewish) accept frequent touches.
  13. Smell
    • USA — fear of offensive natural smells (billion dollar industry to mask objectionable odors with what is perceived to be pleasant ) — again connected with “attractiveness” concept.
    • Many other cultures consider natural body odors as normal (Arabic).
    • Asian cultures (Filipino, Malay, Indonesian, Thai, Indian) stress frequent bathing — and often criticize USA of not bathing often enough!

  15. Paralanguage
    • vocal characterizers (laugh, cry, yell, moan, whine, belch, yawn).  These send different messages in different cultures (Japan — giggling indicates embarrassment; India – belch indicates satisfaction)
    • vocal qualifiers (volume, pitch, rhythm, tempo, and tone).  Loudness indicates strength in Arabic cultures and softness indicates weakness; indicates confidence and authority to the Germans,; indicates impoliteness to the Thais; indicates loss of control to the Japanese. (Generally, one learns not to “shout” in Asia for nearly any reason!).  Gender based as well: women tend to speak higher and more softly than men.
    • vocal segregates (un-huh, shh, uh, ooh, mmmh, humm, eh, mah, lah).  Segregates indicate formality, acceptance, assent, uncertainty.

Tuesday, September 23, 2014

The Kashmir Problem

It was decided during the campaign of Pakistan, that the Provinces having Muslim majority should be included in Pakistan. The people of Kashmir were willing to join Pakistan but the Hindu Maharaja Gulab Sigh did against the wishes of the people. The entire valley of Jammu and Kashmir with its population of 25 Lac was sold by the British to a Dogra Maharaja for Rs 75 Lac. Pakistan took the matter to U.N.O. The United Nations appointed commision for a peaceful settlement of the Kashmir problem. The commission presented two resolutions on August 13, 1948 and January 5, 1949, which were re-accepted by the Indian and Pakistan governments and approved by the Security Council. The main points agreed upon were:

* Cease-Fire and the Demarcation of the cease-fire line.
* A free and impartial plebiscite in Kashmir under U.N.O.
* Withdrawal of forces of both the countries from Kashmir.

After the cease-fire, the Indian forces refused to withdraw from the Kashmir valley. In 1951, Dr. Graham tried to solve the problem but India rejected in February 1953. The Security Council appointed Gonar Jerring in 1957 but India did not agree to any proposal. At last on August8, 1965, a National Revolutionary Council was formed in occupied Kashmir and the Mujahids stood against Indian forces. India became so desperate and attacked Pakistan. Pakistan Army pushed back the Indian forces in a historical way. In 1971 war, Shimla Agreement was written but India did not agree to liberate Kashmir. Now again the people of Kashmir stood uop against Indian forces and they are fighting for their freedom, which India has to acord them today or tomorrow. In the words of Late General Mohammad Ayub Khan, the Ex-President of Pakistan, Kashmir is a “Time Bomb” which would explode at its proper time and that time, we are sure, has come now. Kashmir is a part and parcel of Pakistan and we can never withdraw from this right.

Essays Duties of Women

Women play a very vital role in human progress and have a significant place in the society. They are not at all inferior to men. They are capable of sharing all the responsibilities of life. Man and woman have been rightly compared to the wheels of the same carriage. Islam has accorded an equal position to women in the society. Islam realized the importance of women and granted them a very dignified position equal to man.

The main responsibility of a woman is to preserve the human race. As a mother, her position is unique. She brings up the children with extreme care. The first school of a child is the lap of his mother. It is quite true that great man had great mothers. Napoleon said:

“Give me good mothers and I will give you a good nation.”

The progress of nation depends upon the way the mothers bring up their children. If the mothers are educated, the whole society will progress. Women have always played an important role in the progress of a nation. In the early days of Islam, women worked side by side with men. In the battlefield, they nursed the injured, kept up the supplies and in certain cases even fought bravely. Florence Nightingale was the woman, who led a very successful campaign for the reforms of hospitals and nursing profession. Women had been great saints, scholars, poets, writers, reformers and administrators.

Women should be given proper education and training. They should known what life is and how it should be lived. Educated women can do much to reform the society. Many disturbances in the society is created by those anti-social persons, who were brought up by wrong hands. In modern age, women are going very well in all the fields of progress. They are demonstrating their talents in best. They are serving as teachers, doctors, Engineers, Administrators and even head of the states. The literacy rate among the women so in Pakistan is very low. The need is to increase this ratio. More education among the women means the more progress of the society

Essays The Responsibilities of an Ideal Student

The purpose of education is to produce ideal persons to face the responsibilities of the future. This aim can be achieved only when the students are sincere and they acquire the education in the real sense. Just copying a few questions and passing the examination is not an education. A student can never be educated until and unless he does not put his heart and should to the cause of education. A student is a person, who devotes himself to the pursuits of knowledge and learning. It is therefore, the first and foremost duty of aj ideal student to seek knowledge. The pursuit of knowledge demands hard work and full devotion. Unfortunately, the students do not realize their duties. They have confined the education. Their greatest purpose is to get good grade in the examination by hook or by crook. They adopt all the foul means to get through the examinations. The ideal student enriches himself with knowledge. In practical life only those students come out with best colours, who had acquire knowledge.

An ideal student enjoys learning. He goes deep and deep in search of the knowledge. He is not a bookworm. He knows that a healthy body is necessary for healthy mind. He takes interest in all the activities that promote his physical health. He goes to the play ground with the same pleasure and enthusiasm with which he studies in the library. An ideal student is not unsocial. He loves his fellow students and takes part in all the collective activities.

The ideal student respects and honours his teachers. He knows the place of teachers, who are opening the gate of glories for him. He is humble and obedient. The more he learns from his teachers, the more grateful he is to them. The more knowledge he gets, the more humble he becomes. An ideal student is not a frog in a well but a person with greater visions and ideals. He is regular and punctual. He does not participate in adverse and negative activities. He confines himself to his studies and task. He does not waste his time in useless deeds. He does not keep association with such elements whose purpose is to damage the cause of education. He believes in simple and plain living. He is kind and generous.

Essays My Aim in Life

Aimless life is certainly a sin. Many people have no definite aim in life. They are like the travelers going a head without any destination. Such people lead an aimless life and what they do in life, is largely a matter of chance, determined by the circumstances in which they happen to be placed. Aimless people do not achieve any thing in life. They just live because they have to live. One should have a definite purpose of life. The people who want success in life, first of all, determine their target. They keep before them their circumstances, their virtuous, their qualities, their talents and their ability to work. They select some definite target of their life and remain successful.
Different people have different aims in life. Some aim at wealth, some at power, some at fame, some at business and some at education and knowledge. My aim is neither wealth nor fame. I wish to serve by country with best of my talent. I love Pakistan and I really believe that every body should think to make it a really great country. I want to become a doctor. It is a noble profession. In medical line, there is much more scope of service. On cen serve the patients every where in the country. This is my personal choice. My parents have compelled me to select it. I wish to become a very successful doctor in future. So I am studying hard to achieve my target. I have keen intrest in medical line, so I do not feel any trouble in strudying at all. After obtaining the medical degree, I plan to work in rural areas where there is much shortage of doctors. My father is well off man and I do not have any financial problem. I do not have the lust of money. I will go to the rural areas and shall help the poor people. I would be best sort of service. This will give me extreme satisfaction and that is the aim of my life.
I know, my profession is very dignified and it will help me to get peace and satisfaction in life. It provides you best chances of service. Sympathy to human being is the sympathy to one own self.

Essays A Cricket Match

Cricket is one of the most popular and exciting out door sports. Some of us get the opportunity to play first class cricket, but there are millions who enjoy seeing it being played. It gives us moments of leisure and pleasure and fills us with a competitive spirit. I witnessed the demonstration of the greatest excitement and determination at National Stadium, Karachi.

It was a fine day. A large number of people including men, women and children from all walks of life gathered there to enjoy the match between Pakistan and New Zealand. To be a good sports team, one has to be aggressive and this was shown in the final between the tw3o teams. New Zealand won the toss and invited Pakistan to bat first. This was a big blunder that their captain had made. Shahid Afridi and Saeed Anwar were sent as openers. It was a right decision by the captain, because Shahid Afridi slammed the ball over the field. It was due to his hard hitting that Pakistan achieved a good start. Saeed Anwar was very careful and most of the time simply obstructed. The bowling was quite strong, due to which Saeed Anwar was not able to score a single run for the first fifteen minutes. But as time passed, he grasped the strategy of the bowlers and began to fully support Afridi. He completed his half-century by playing keen and beautiful shots. When he was at a score of 88, the first slip caught him smartly. In this way, the first wicket of Pakistan fell at a total of 130. After him, Shahid Afridi could not steadily face the bowlers and proceeded towards the pavilion in a short time.

Ejaz Ahmed began his batting when the Pakistani team was playing at 135. Along with Inzamamum ul Haq, he pulled up the score to 170. The next four men were dismissed very quickly – two bowled one caught and one out leg before wickets. However Moin Khan made a stand and was able to increase the score to 218. At this moment, 10 overs remained un bowled and three wickets in hand. Wasim Akram played a beautiful inning and Pakistani team snatched a total of 269 for 8.

This terrifying score marked down the morals of the New Zealand Team. They made a poor start, as their first wicket fell when the score was only ten. However, their middle order batsmen made a great effort and cheered the Kiwi Team. Inzamam ul Haq was the person who caught the second middle order batsman at 70. The following batsmen also played quite well and raised up the score to 220 for 5. This situation was exciting and pointed out to the defeat if Pakistan. However, when Wasim Akram came to bowl, the hopes of Pakistanis revived. He bowled extraordinary well and just after 5 overs, the New Zealand team had reached to 260 for 7. The rival needed barely 10 runs to win in 1 over. The down order batsmen shook up well. Score kept on increasing gradually and they reached to 266. It was the last ball; New Zealand requiring 4 runs to win and Waqar Younis was on the other side of the wicket. As soon as he bowled, the wickets were slammed and Pakistan was granted another exciting victory over New Zealand. The crowd went in mad uproar, congratulating their national champions

Essays Life in a Big City

Karachi is the biggest city in Pakistan and also one of the most thickly populated cities in the world. Its population has increased rapidly and accordingly has given rise to many social problems. People of this metropolis are becoming more and more concerned about solving these serious problems, some of which are discussed below.

The ever-increasing rush of heavy traffic on the roads is resulting in heavy loss of human life. One day or the other, people suffer form accidents due to reckless driving. Some lose their vehicles and some go to the police. This is due to lack of civic sense in the citizens and violation of traffic rules. Traffic jams, road quarrels, untidiness and damage of public property is also a result of this problem. The government has not done any planning to control this situation in the past two decades.

In the same manner, the government has never emphasized upon population distribution. As a result, slum areas are rapidly being built, where poor labour lives. The disordered development of small houses is spoiling the outlook of the city, as well as creating problems of illegal electric connections, water supply and pollution. The authorities have failed to reclaim the locations from these people.

The academic career of children in Karachi is unpredictable due to lack of good schools and institutions. The need of recreational institutions, parks and play grounds is also felt at times and most of all joblessness creates problems for poor people.

Another problem faced by the citizens of the city is the frequent power breakdowns. Every other day, K.E.S.C cuts down the electric supply without notice. This becomes a great hurdle for industries and professional that use electric machinery for their work. Disturbance and shortage of water supply is also a cause of discomfort among the citizens. Sometimes, the dirty and unfiltered water becomes a major factor in food poisoning, which usually takes place on festive occasions, when demand of water in the city increases. Any measure to improve the supply of filtered water has also not been adopted by the government. Problems due to improper drainage system are also becoming a matter of concern among the people. The alarming in crease in the disorderliness of drainage lines is posing serious threats for people, especially in poor areas. Filth and dirt runs down a channel by the footpath and children play over it. We have malaria, cholera and dysentery still destroying our children because such things exist.

The attitude of beggars in Karachi is the most irritating problem. They are worthless idlers robbing good-natural people. It has become their regular practice to crowd public spots and cheat people. The adverse effects of begging problem are noticeable in sum areas.

There are too many dirty and ownerless dogs roaming about in the streets of Karachi. They spread many diseases and sometime become a danger by injuring people.

Lack of environmental care among people and drivers of public service vehicles is giving rise to pollution problems. Dust fills the air in most of the roads all the time. Improper turned cars fill the atmosphere with deadly smoke at hours of rush, which causes disease among the policemen and common public. The blowing of pressure horns is always there, deafening the ears.

Karachi is also often subjected to terrorist activities. Bomb blasts and firings at public spots are resulting in great loss of human life. The terrorists deserve no less than capital punishment. It is the duty of the police to intensify their investigation to stop such activities.

For the well to do class, life in Karachi may be fascinating, but for other citizens it is a center of drawbacks. It is only through the concentrated efforts of each and every person, including the members of law-enforcing and administrative agencies, can we overcome these serious problems of the metropolis.

Essays Merits and Demerits of Science

As we turn over the pages of history, we come across the development made by man in different walks of life over the centuries. From the primitive Stone Age to the modern computerized era, every step of man has proved to be the milestone in the history of civilization. Modern science has evolved over a long period, and has now reached the peak of success. It has worked wonders in our life, but it cannot be said that it is altogether a blessing. When we look at the other side of the picture, we are filled with a sense of horror. The fear of war and destruction hangs over our heads all the time. In order to understand the creative and destructive aspects of modern science, we stand in need of an analysis that will help us differentiate between the good and the bad.

As we look over the brighter side of the achievements of science, we come to realize that there is hardly any sphere of life that has not been enhanced by the creative abilities of man. In the field of medical science, knowledge and research has gone to such an extent that almost all the ailments have found a cure. The threatening clouds of death no longer haunt the patients who were otherwise filled with despair. Epidemics have been wiped out, nutritional standards have been improved, drug therapy has been recognized and hygienic conditions are being created so that the new generation may enjoy a longer and better life.

In the realm of communication, modern scientific inventions have helped a lot. The far-flung corners of the world have been linked together with a wide spread air network. Distances have lost their meaning and thousands of miles can be covered within hours. Travelling today is not only swift, but also full of pleasure and luxury.

Modern science has opened new vistas of entertainment. All the new electronic gadgets have filled our lives with recreational variety. From the small pocket sized transistor to the big screen television and VCR, we are provided entertainment at home and we owe it all to science. Readers are provided illustrated, colourful books due to the blessing of modern science in the form of latest printing machines and techniques. Such means of entertainment have brought about a change in our habits and hobbies.

The advantages of science are not restricted to the urban population. In the fields of agriculture, forestry and fishery, science has provided the rural population with the latest implements and know-how. The new methods of agriculture have boosted the production of farms and fields. With the use of different kind pesticides, the crops remain undamaged and the tillers of the soil get better return of the labour. This increase in output not only improves the condition of the toiling masses, but also brings about a healthy change in the economy of the country. This keeps on moving the nations on the path of progress and prosperity.

As we cast our eyes on the other side of the picture, we cannot help coming to the conclusion that science is also the monster of death and destruction. Man is selfish and pugnacious by nature. To fulfil his jingoist designs, he stands in need of the most destructive weapons, which could bring about the annihilation of his rivals. Man has gained knowledge in the field of science, but due to lack of wisdom, he is misusing this knowledge. All big nations are thinking of fulfilling the dream of becoming the super power. The wars of today are not limited to the battlefield. It brings about epidemic killing of the civilian population. The knowledge of this domain has added immeasurable danger to war. All the leading powers posses fatal weapons, and it seems that the weaker countries are their mercy. These big nations talk a lot about reduction in arms and they hold disarmament conferences. However, their practice is quite contrary to their preaching.

Science, no doubt provides, new ways of entertainment, but these very means of amusement are bringing a sharp decline in the moral values of the young generation and equally sharp increase in the number of crimes. The TV and video provide entertainment but they quite often become the channels of vulgarity and obscenity. Moreover, new ways of crime are shown to younger people, who adopt the path of getting easy money.

Looking at the two aspects of modern science, we conclude that science by itself is neither good nor bad. It is the will and intentions of man, which makes him, put it to constructive use or take it to the path of devil.

Essays Uses and Abuses of Media

Imagine a city without televisions, radios or Internet connections. All these media facilities provide people awareness of what is going on around them. Electronic as well as Print Media is an effective way of communication as it provides link between ordinary persons and others in the world. It is only due to newspapers that we can read in the morning about the events that took place on the other side of the world only the day before. Besides, electronic media can telecast live happenings from around my corner of the world. Radio, Television and Internet are inventions that extend across all areas of internet including weather forecasts, entertainment, educational broadcasts, business and important political and social events. Companies that want to sell their products by advertising also make use of media. Media is very important in the fast moving world, because without media the society would be unaware of the local and foreign affairs.
Now, we come to the drawbacks of media. Electronic media is the most unpredictable mean of spreading knowledge among people. One gets biased and one-sided views through this media and nobody can rely on truth. Internet was supposed to be used for gaining information from throughout the world, but only a fraction uses it for information. Rests are being morally devaluated through the improper and non-religious publishing. Print media is also playing its role in this regard. Fashion and Movie Magazines are the main cause of wastage of money and every amidst the young generation. If a newspaper can be used, it can be misused much easily by spreading views of one political party and other rumours. Readers should be careful and judicious in selecting the type of media so that they

Essays Memorable Day in My Life

It was the 27th day of July and the last day of competition I had participated in the All Pakistan Software competition. I read the advertisement in the newspaper three months ago, in which software programmers were invited to send in their software for the competition. I worked hard for about one month and made the software, which was then selected by the panel of judges and I was invited to participate in the event. Now, after three restless days, the event was coming to an end. But, there was a closing ceremony to come, in which the best programmers were to be awarded prizes.
I had been waiting for the day with anxiety and curiosity. I got up early in the morning and prayed to God to grant me success. I was rather uneasy and restless. My mind was swinging between expectation and apprehension. It was an inexplicable situation of uneasiness and anticipation. I was not sure about what to expect. My parents and friends had high expectations of me. At one moment, I though that I would win but again I feared if I do not. I knew that there is always an element of chance, how good one may be. I was in a very disturbed state of mind.
The closing ceremony was yet to commence. The sand of time was running out. I was getting more and more restless. At last, I reached the exhibition hall and found my seat amidst the participants. The ceremony started with the speech of the organizing committee and then that of the chief guest. They all emphasized on the importance of software development in the country and measures for its promotions. Finally, the judges were invited to the dais to announce the best programmers of the competition. At once, absolute silence covered the audience. At the moment, I still remember that my legs were trembling and heart throbbing. In less than a minute, the judge announced the name of the person who had won First Prize in the big event – and that was me! I was filled with a feeling of greatest joy and excitement. I thanked God and ran to the stage with every body congratulating me. The chief Guest handed me the winning shield. I was requested to express a few words about my success. That was a speechless moment. Filled with emotions and in high spirits, I thanked God, my parents and all my friends who had helped me in my achievement.
When I reached home, my parents were exhilarated with delight and joy as I gave them the good news. My siblings rejoiced my remarkable attainment. When I informed my friends and relatives them came to congratulate me. Tea and sweets were served to all. Every body was in a jolly and happy mood. My mother prepared pleasant edibles for lunch and we dined altogether. Never before was I so happy.
In the evening, many other relatives and friends came to congratulate me. My father welcomed them cordially and thanked them for their kind visits. We passed the whole day cheerfully. In fact, it was the happiest day of my life, which I shall remember for many years to come.

Essays Patriotism

Patriotism means love and regard for the country. It is a natural instinct that men loves the place where he gets birth and where he is brought up. It is one of the noblest passions of human nature. The love of country is natural and essential for every one. Man is a social animal. He cannot live alone. He needs the assistance of other human beings. So the people belonging to one country are brothers and they work for the collective interest of the country. They struggle to flourish their country. The man, who works against the interest of his country, is traitor and he does not deserve any sympathy.

The only way to serve Pakistan is that we must be sincere with out country. We must keep our personal interest behind and we must give supreme importance to the demands of our freedom. Country is not just a piece of land. It is not only the collection of mountains, rivers and valleys. It is the heritage of our dreams, aspirations, culture, traditions and our great religion. We love Pakistan because it is the centre of our hopes and future dreams. It is the land of our following generation. We must try to make it strong and undefeatable castle of Islam.

Patriotism is an active virtue. The real love urges man to do every thing in his power for the welfare of his country. It makes him perform his duties honestly and devotedly. Patriotism makes him a good citizen, who is always ready to serve his nation with best of his talents. A good citizen is always ready to give sacrifices for his nation. Patriotism is a sacred passion, which makes the nation really strong and honorable. It is our duty to keep this passion alive in our hearts.

The great wars of the world were won only because of the extreme sense of Patriotism. Only those nations in the world survive and distinguish themselves, whose citizens keep a high and a very positive sense of Patriotism. Pakistan can become a really strong country, when the people of Pakistan are patriots in the real sense of the world. Give you love to your country and it will give you all the blessings.

Monday, September 22, 2014

Karachi CAP Form Result 2014-2015, SECCAP College Admission Result Announced 2014-15

Karachi CAP Form Result 2014-2015, SECCAP College Admission Result Announced 2014-15
The Centralized Admission policy (CAP) has been changed to Sindh E-Centralized College Admission Program 2014-15. This new policy has been brought under the current government setup that Dr Ishrat-ul-Ibad as the governor of Sindh, Bilawal Bhutto as the patron-in-Chief, Syed Qaim Ali Shah as the Chief Minister of Sindh, Nisar Ahmed Khuhro as the Senior Minister fir Education and Literacy Department and Dr Fazlullah Pechuho as the secretary of education and literacy department.
2014 Karachi CAP Form Result 2014 2015, SECCAP College Admission Result Announced 2014 15
Cap Form Result 2014-15
Now under this admission policy candidates has to fill the form online & then print the form to submit. Candidate should download the brochure carefully and then select the desired colleges. Fill the form completely and carefully as after clicking the submit button, the candidate cannot revert back. Form will be submitted with 60 rupee challan and attach a photocopy of the admit card & mark sheet with the form and submit it to the nearest branch of Sindh Bank. The list of successful candidates will be published on the website of education and literacy department sindheducation.gov.pk
Sindh E-Centralized College Admission Program 2014-15 Announced Result SECCAP 2014-15. CAP Result 2014-2015 (Regular and Private) of Pre Medical, Pre Engineering, Commerce, Humanities, Economics and Computer Science of Male & Female Candidates. Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan College Admission Result 2014 Announced.

Successful candidates can view their result on official website of Education & Literacy Department i.e Karachi CAP Form Result 2014-2015

Sunday, September 21, 2014


World Economic Forum Report on Pakistan

WEF (World Economic Forum) has declared Pakistani Economical condition as critical. The forum stated that though Pakistan has improved its Micro Economical condition, but the overall situation is not hopeful.

 According to WEF, Pakistan has improved competitiveness ranking from 133 to 129, however the country didn’t manage to show progress in all fields. The report stated that Pakistan ranked at 142 in basic requirements, 77 in terms of innovation and sophistication and 104 in terms of efficiency enhancers.

Further report stated that almost 25% Pakistani Children haven’t access to even Primary education, while labor market is also facing crisis.

Pakistan is ranked at 140 out of 144 countries in terms of participation of women in economy, in terms of access of public to ICT (Information & Communication Technologies), Pakistan is ranked at 114 position.

 However Pakistan has improved its position in fields of Financial Market Development (67) and 30 in terms of Market Size.


S. Ejaz Wasti (Economic Adviser) Team Leader
Overview of the Economy
Dr. Imtiaz Ahmad
Joint Economic Adviser
Agriculture Omer Farooq
Research Officer
Manufacturing & Mining Attaullah Shah
Assistant Economic Adviser
Fiscal Development Nazia Gul
Assistant Economic Adviser
Money and Credit Nazia Gul
Assistant Economic Adviser
Capital Markets Absar Hasan Siddique
Deputy Economic Adviser
Inflation Ahmed Khan
Deputy Economic Adviser
Trade and Payments Absar Hasan Siddique
Deputy Economic Adviser
Public Debt M. Umar Zahid
Financial Analyst (Debt Wing)
Education Zaila Husnain
Assistant Economic Adviser
Health & Nutrition Ahmed Khan
Deputy Economic Adviser
Population, Labor Force and Employment Nargis Mazhar
Assistant Economic Adviser
Transport and Communications Manzoor Ahmed Yusufi
Deputy Economic Adviser
Energy Muhammad Shoaib
Assistant Economic Adviser
Poverty and Social Safety Nets M. Shamim Wazir
Joint Economic Adviser
Environment S.Natiq Hussain Naqvi
Project Consultant
Contingent Liabilities M. Umar Zahid
Financial Analyst (Debt Wing)
Tax Expenditure Nazia Gul
Assistant Economic Adviser
Impact of War in Afghanistan and Ensuing Terrorism on Pakistan's Economy Zaila Husnain
Assistant Economic Adviser
Economic and Social Indicators
Highlights Pakistan Economic Survey 2013-14
Download Statistical Appendices
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